- C language is a structure oriented programming language, was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
- C language features were derived from earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
- C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system
- In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
- In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.
- C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification for C language was developed by American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.
- C99 standard – Next revision was published in 1999 that introduced new futures like advanced data types and other changes.
C11 and Embedded C
- C11 standard adds new features to C and library like type generic macros, anonymous structures, improved Unicode support, atomic operations, multi-threading, and bounds-checked functions. It also makes some portions of the existing C99 library optional, and improves compatibility with C++.
Features of C language:
Uses of C language:
C language is used for developing system applications that forms major portion of operating systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux. Below are some examples of C being used.
Which level the C language is belonging to?
|1||High level languages provides almost everything that the programmer might need to do as already built into the language||Middle level languages don’t provide all the built-in functions found in high level languages, but provides all building blocks that we need to produce the result we want||Low level languages provides nothing other than access to the machines basic instruction set|
C language is a structured language
|1||In this type of language, large programs are divided into small programs called functions||In this type of language, programs are divided into objects||There is no specific structure for programming this language|
|2||Prime focus is on functions and procedures that operate on data||Prime focus is on the data that is being operated and not on the functions or procedures||N/A|
|3||Data moves freely around the systems from one function to another||Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions||N/A|
|4||Program structure follows “Top Down Approach”||Program structure follows “Bottom UP Approach”||N/A|
C, Pascal, ALGOL and Modula-2
C++, JAVA and C# (C sharp)
|BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN|
Key points to remember:
- C language is structured, middle level programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie
- Operating system programs such as Windows, Unix, Linux are wriiten by C language
- C89/C90 and C99 are two standardized editions of C language
- C has been written in assembly language