C – strchr() function

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  • strchr( ) function returns pointer to the first occurrence of the character in a given string. Syntax for strchr( ) function is given below.

char *strchr(const char *str, int character);

……

Example program for strchr() function in C:

    • In this program, strchr( ) function is used to locate first occurrence of the character ‘i’ in the string “This is a string for testing”. Character ‘i’ is located at position 3 and pointer is returned at first occurrence of the character ‘i’.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
int main ()
{
  char string[55] ="This is a string for testing";
  char *p;
  p = strchr (string,'i');

  printf ("Character i is found at position %dn",p-string+1);
  printf ("First occurrence of character "i" in "%s" is" 
           " "%s"",string, p);

   return 0;
}

Output:

Character i is found at position 3
First occurrence of character “i” in “This is a string for testing” is “is is a string for testing”
    • If you want to find every occurrence of a character in a given string, you can use below C program.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
int main ()
{
  char string[55] ="This is a string for testing";
  char *p;
  int k = 1;
  p = strchr (string,'i');
  while (p!=NULL)
  {
    printf ("Character i found at position %dn",p-string+1);
    printf ("Occurrence of character "i" : %d n",k);
    printf ("Occurrence of character "i" in "%s" is "%s" 
            ""n",string, p);
    p=strchr(p+1,'i');
    k++;
  }
  return 0;
}

Output:

Character i is found at position 3
Occurrence of character “i” : 1
Occurrence of character “i” in “This is a string for testing” is “is is a string for testing”
Character i is found at position 6
Occurrence of character “i” : 2
Occurrence of character “i” in “This is a string for testing” is “is a string for testing”
Character i is found at position 14
Occurrence of character “i” : 3
Occurrence of character “i” in “This is a string for testing” is “ing for testing”
Character i is found at position 26
Occurrence of character “i” : 4
Occurrence of character “i” in “This is a string for testing” is “ing”

Other C String functions:

    • String.h header file supports all the string functions in C language. All the string functions are given below.
    • Click on each string function name below to display example programs.
S.no
String functions
Description
1 strcat ( )  Concatenates str2 at the end of str1.
2 strncat ( )  appends a portion of string to another
3 strcpy ( )  Copies str2 into str1
4 strncpy ( )  copies given number of characters of one string to another
5 strlen ( )  gives the length of str1.
6 strcmp ( )  Returns 0 if str1 is same as str2. Returns <0 if strl < str2. Returns >0 if str1 > str2.
7 strcmpi ( )  Same as strcmp() function. But, this function negotiates case.  “A” and “a” are treated as same.
8 strchr ( )  Returns pointer to first occurrence of char in str1.
9 strrchr ( )  last occurrence of given character in a string is found
10 strstr ( )  Returns pointer to first occurrence of str2 in str1.
11 strrstr ( )  Returns pointer to last occurrence of str2 in str1.
12 strdup ( )  duplicates the string
13 strlwr ( )  converts string to lowercase
14 strupr ( )  converts string to uppercase
15 strrev ( )  reverses the given string
16 strset ( )  sets all character in a string to given character
17 strnset ( )  It sets the portion of characters in a string to given character
18 strtok ( )  tokenizing given string using delimiter

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